Post-Accident Drug Testing Laws Overview
Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) carriers face significant liabilities every time they send a truck out on the road, from the safety of their drivers and other motorists, to the integrity of the cargo being transported. That's why it's so important that commercial drivers steer clear of alcohol and other impairing substances when they get behind the wheel. But when serious accidents do occur, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), which regulates CMVs, requires post-accident drug and alcohol testing of drivers.
The following is an overview of federal post-accident drug testing regulations applicable to CMV carriers and their drivers. Keep in mind that the same procedures also apply to post-accident alcohol testing. See FindLaw's summary of Commercial DUI Regulations for more information.
Post-Accident Drug Testing: Who Gets Tested?
CMV carriers subject to federal regulation by the FMCSA (via the Commerce Clause ) must ensure that each commercial driver passes a drug screening prior to employment. Additionally, carriers must perform random drug tests of commercial drivers throughout the course of their employment and may test drivers who show signs of impairment. CMV drivers also may be subject to post-accident drug testing under certain circumstances. These include the following:
- Any driver who was performing safety-sensitive functions with respect to the vehicle (if the accident resulted in a human fatality); or
- Any driver who receives a citation for a moving violation within 32 hours of the accident, if it involved either bodily injury (and that person receives immediate medical treatment away from the accident scene) or at least one of the vehicles involved is disabled and requires towing.
These circumstances are the same for post-accident alcohol testing as well, however such testing must be conducted within eight hours (instead of 32), given how quickly alcohol is metabolized.
Post-Accident Drug Testing: Rules and Procedures
Since the presence of drugs (through the detection of metabolites) at the time of the accident diminishes with the passage of time, CMV carriers are required to conduct drug testing within 32 hours of the incident. They also are required to provide their drivers with the procedures and instructions for post-accident drug testing prior to operating a vehicle for the company. The results of urine-based drug tests conducted by federal, state, or local officials are considered to be in compliance with FMCSA's requirements as long as they conform to that jurisdiction's standards and are obtained by the employer.
Carriers may allow their employee drivers subject to post-accident drug tests to continue driving while waiting for the results of the test, as long as no other restrictions have been placed on the driver by law enforcement and there is no reasonable suspicion of impaired driving.
If for some reason the carrier/employer is unable to procure a drug test within this time frame, it must maintain records indicating the reasons why it wasn't conducted. These records are to be submitted to the FMCSA upon request. Drivers who fail or refuse to take a drug test are barred from driving CMVs until the successful completion of the return-to-duty process.
Post-accident drug testing is not required in instances involving the boarding or alighting (exiting) of a stationary CMV; the loading or unloading of cargo from a stationary CMV; or an occurrence involving a passenger or multipurpose car that doesn't meet the definition of a CMV.
Get a Free Evaluation of Your Post-Accident Drug Testing Concerns
Whether you're a commercial motor vehicle carrier, a commercial driver, or just been hit and injured by one, you should know the rules of the road with respect to drug testing after an accident. Some situations may require legal insight from a professional. Get started today by having a local attorney evaluate your situation at no cost to you.